GERMAIN NICHOLSON, GROCER, LAND SPECULATOR & PHILANTHROPIST (1814-1888)
Most of the mail involving Nicholson is incoming mail and the 2 covers shown are good examples of the world-wide breadth of his mail. The first is addressed to Monsieur Germain Nicholson, Négociant (merchant),69 Rue Collin Est, à Melbourne, Australie sent ‘Via Steamer’ from ‘Bordeaux/ 2/ OCT/ 67' by ‘E. PURREY, BORDEAUX’ and there are 2 examples of the blue oval ‘MORE TO PAY’, one for ‘4d’ which is crossed out and the other for ‘10d’ (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Click to Enlarge
The reverse shows the identical Bordeaux postmark and a clear reception postmark of MELBOURNE/ 3D/ DC 16/67, a transit time of 10 weeks (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Click to Enlarge
The second letter was sent ‘Via Galle’ with a pair of Hong Kong 24c stamps to Germain Nicholson Esq., 69 Collins Street East, Melbourne, Australia with a manuscript ‘No 28', but the senders’s name is not legible (Figure 3).
Figure 3: Click to Enlarge
The reverse shows a HONG KONG/ C/ MY 17/ 73 postmark and a reception MELBOURNE / 7 O/ JU 27/ 73 postmark, a transit time of 7 weeks ( Fig. 4).
Figure 4: Click to Enlarge
Another Nicholson item of interest is a Bank of Victoria cheque issued at par on 10 March 1855 for 200 pounds sterling payable to Germain Nicholson, with the ‘stub’ showing in Germain’s handwriting “pay to the order of Mrs Eleanor Nicholson”, his wife (Figures 5 & 6).
Figure 5: Click to Enlarge
Figure 6: Click to Enlarge
Germain Nicholson, grocer, was born on 18 October 1814 in Lamplugh, Cumberland, England, son of William Nicholson, factory owner, and his wife Elinor, née Germain. Educated at a private school, he was apprenticed to a grocer and from 1835 was employed as house manager of Cornthwaite & Co., merchants of Liverpool. On 26 September 1841 at Liverpool he married Eleanor Joplin, and in October they sailed for Port Phillip in the Arkwright, arriving at Hobson's Bay on 7 January 1842. He had sold much merchandise on the voyage and, with the proceeds and other goods he had already sent out, he immediately established himself as an importing grocer and provision merchant in Melbourne. His brother Thomas arrived in the colony in 1843 and managed some of the business until he died on 16 December 1853.
In 1844 Nicholson bought the business and premises of Parker & Beadle in Elizabeth Street and by December he had three business houses in full operation. He had problems of overstocking during the 1845 recession but when it ended he expanded rapidly, with branches in Melbourne and throughout Victoria by the time of the gold rushes. In the early 1850s he imported goods in huge quantities, anticipating the continued influx of population and later began exporting gold on a large scale. His trade dealings with England and the East were very successful and his best- known import was the first cargo of tea from Hankow to Australia.
Nicholson's speculation in land was also profitable. In 1843 he bought and sold a King Street property, the first of many town sites to bring him good returns. In 1850 he bought land at East St Kilda, where he built his family home, a pre-fabricated, two-storied house imported from California. He was a director of the Victorian Life and General Insurance Co. and in 1853 a founder of the Bank of Victoria, serving as a director until 1888. He was also a founder and director of the Melbourne and Hobson's Bay Railway Co. He was a life member of the Royal Society of Victoria from as early as 1863.
A philanthropist, Nicholson contributed to the Ragged Schools and the Melbourne Protestant Orphan Asylum. He was a founder of the Church of England Grammar School in St Kilda Road and the first to donate £100 to the appeal for building the (old) St Paul's Church. He declined several times to enter politics, but was a magistrate for Melbourne and St Kilda from 1857. He had taken a leading role in the anti-transportation movement and in 1851 was one of the 'Thirty Patriots of Melbourne' who each subscribed 100 guineas for a deputation to plead their cause in England.
Nicholson was well known and admired for his commercial acumen and success as well as his generosity. He offered shelter in his warehouses to the hordes of immigrants arriving in Melbourne before they set off for the goldfields. His reputation as 'the poor man's friend' was said to have protected his goods from being stolen and allowed him to ride in the forest around Albert Park unmolested by bushrangers. He died on 22 November 1888 in the Salazie bound for England and was buried at sea. He was survived by his wife and their only child, a daughter.
This paper is almost completely derived from the on-line Australian Dictionary of Biography.
Addendum (September 2007): An addtional cover addressed to Germain Nicholson sent from QUEENSCLIFF/ SE 22/ 76/ VICTORIA with the BN 70 of Queenscliff on the 2d Victroria stamp was addressed to his usual address in Melbourne (Figure 7).
Figure 7: Click to Enlarge