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MILITARY ENCAMPMENTS in VICTORIA: LANGWARRIN CAMP & BOER WAR

The purple ‘TWO PENCE’ stamp of Victoria was cancelled with a shield enclosing the details of the postmark which was 1/ MILITARY/ FE 11/ (with no year)/ ENCAMPMENT. Note the ‘scalloped’ out perforation at the right hand side of the stamp. The vendor stated that it was used at Langwarrin Camp, Victoria (Figure 1).

Another example of the same postmark was seen on a cover addressed to Messrs. Reuters Telegram Co. Ltd cancelled with the same design, showing a shield with 1/ MILITARY/ MY 8/ ENCAMPMENT, again with the year date was not shown and the stamp was cancelled with the barred numeral ‘231' (Figure 2).

Another cover with the addressee illegible had the same design but did show the complete date of MY 2/ 01(Figure 3).

According to Hugh Freeman &Geoff White’s The Numeral Cancels of Victoria on page 152 the barred numeral ‘231' was used at various Camp sites, the first was on a cut paper and like the Figure 1, it had no year date (Figure 4).

Freeman & White showed a cover where the two stamps were cancelled with a barred numeral of a different ‘231' with vertical bars above and below the numeral. There was a shield alongside with 2/ MILITARY/ AP 30/ 01/ ENCAMPMENT, as well as a transit BORO/ 1901/ 2 MY/ N.S.W. This was addressed from Trooper Roberts, Melbourne to Mrs. R.E. Roberts, Mayfield, Tarago, via Goulburn, N.S.W. (Figure 5).

Victoria's army camps were a function of contemporary defence systems, fluctuating in scale and developing in type as Victorians and Australians responded to defence issues. The first camps were temporary encampments of volunteer corps, held annually at Easter from 1861 at Werribee Park and Queenscliff, and from 1887 at Langwarrin, where semi-permanent buildings were erected. During the Boer War (1899-1902), the Victorian contingents were mustered at the showgrounds, Ascot Vale, and later at Langwarrin. Easter encampments persisted after the war at Langwarrin and around Port Phillip heads.

The introduction of compulsory training in 1910 demanded more expansive sites, with large camps at Kilmore, Seymour, Ballarat and Heidelberg. On the outbreak of World War I, a camp was established at Broadmeadows, where the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) was concentrated. Accusations of prostitution and other vices traditionally associated with military camps, and a series of riots in city streets, soon prompted references to Melbourne as a 'garrison town'. In early 1915 troops were removed to Seymour to alleviate serious concerns about their health. Several other temporary camps were established in 1915, notably at Ballarat, Flemington, Geelong, Maribyrnong and Royal Park. By the end of the war, Broadmeadows camp achieved a more permanent status. Seymour was consistently employed through the 1920s, with camps also at Heidelberg, Williamstown, Mornington, Queenscliff and Broadmeadows.

Camps were less frequent and more localised after the abolition of compulsory training in 1930. During World War II existing militia forces were gathered at Seymour, a new camp for the Second AIF was constructed at nearby Puckapunyal, and Royal Park and Broadmeadows resumed as important centres. The arrival of US troops in 1942 saw further camps established, notably Camp Pell in Royal Park, facilitating a significant presence of servicemen in Melbourne, if only remembered for the Brownout murders. Postwar development of Australia's regular army and consolidation of Puckapunyal as Victoria's primary training site obviated the need for temporary camp facilities during subsequent conflicts.

This was copied from Bart Ziino’s entry at http://www.emelbourne.net.au/biogs/EM00088b.htm

This photograph shows new recruits at Langwarrin Camp at the time of the Boer War (Figure 6).

 
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